"And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as He is pure"
(1 John iii. 3).
What is the practical value of the blessed Hope? Is it a speculation in theology, or is it a living and blessed hope and inspiration, linked in the Scriptures with almost every aspect of the Christian life?
The apostles used it as an appeal to the careless and indifferent to urge them to decision for Christ. "Repent, and be converted, that your sins my be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord, and He shall send the Lord Jesus which before was preached unto you, whom the heavens must receive until the times of restitution of all things." And again Paul speaks of the Thessalonians as having "turned from idols to serve the living and true God, and to wait for His Son from heaven, even Jesus, which saved us from the wrath to come."
It must therefore have been presented to them as a practical incentive and message of warning. It is a message of awakening and conviction which we should use more freely and effectually than we do. It was the message of God's coming judgment which led to Nineveh's repentance, and the proclamation of Christ's coming to the heathen has brought many to bow at the feet of Jesus.
So the apostle teaches in his letter to Titus, "The grace of God which bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men; teaching us that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts we should live soberly, righteously and godly in this present evil world, looking for that blessed Hope, and the glorious appearing of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for us that He might redeem us from all iniquity and purify unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works." So again in writing to the Thessalonians he presents the coming of the Lord as the great goal of holy aspiration. "The very God of peace sanctify you through and through, and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ."
The beloved John likewise links this hope with the practice of holiness. "When He shall appear we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is; and every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself even as He is pure." Because we are going to be like Him then we wear His image now. We anticipate our coming glory, and like the Lord Himself, who began to wear the garments of His Incarnation long before He came to earth, so we try on even here the robes of our approaching coronation. The glory of the Holiest: shone through the curtains, and so the glory of our future state should cover us even here.
This is our peculiar preparation for his coming, and such a preparation on the part of His Church is the most marked sign of His Advent. When you see the bride arrayed in her wedding robes, you know the Bridegroom must be near. And could we see the Church of Christ robed in the beauty of holiness and putting on her wedding garments, we would know that day was near, and that the angel voices were about to proclaim, "The marriage of the Lamb has come and His wife hath made herself ready."
Mrs. Stowe has pictured in her wonderful little tract, "He is coming to-morrow," the consternation of a millionaire, and the consolation of a poor suffering child of God at the announcement that had just been made to the waiting ones, "He is coming to-morrow."
This was what Paul meant when he said to the Philippians (iv. 20), "Our conversation (our citizenship) is in heaven, from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall change the body of our humiliation that it may be fashioned like unto the body of His glory."
There is nothing except the love of Jesus that can so separate us from the world as the hope of Christ's coming. Dr. Chalmers describes the inhabitants of a pestilential marsh, who had again and again been urged to emigrate, but they could not be induced to leave a certain for an uncertain good. At last one day they saw approaching and slowly passing by a beauteous isle clothed with a verdure and loveliness they had never seen before, and breathing the balmy air of its glad and eternal spring over all their unhealthy plains. Then they began to eagerly enquire if they might enter its blessed harbor. They sent out their boats across the sea, they entreated permission to land upon its shores, and they gladly let go their old cabins and treasures, and hastened to the happy shores of this bright and holy Paradise. So is the vision of His coming. It falls like a withering spell on earthly ambition and avarice, and makes us cry:
My hopes are passing upward, onward,
And with my hopes my heart is gone;
My eyes are turning skyward, sunward,
Where glory brightens round yon throne."
"And now, little children, abide in Him, that when He shall appear we may have confidence and not be ashamed before Him at His coming."When Elisha knew that Elijah's translation was near, he kept very close to his side. To every suggestion that he should leave his side, he answered, ''As the Lord thy God liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee." So, if we are waiting and watching for His coming, we will not let a moment separate us from Him. It was but one evening that Thomas was absent, but that very evening Jesus came.
"The Lord make you to increase and abound in love one toward another, and toward all men, even as we do toward you, to the end He may establish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all His saints."
How embarrassing it would be for you and your brother to meet tomorrow at His right hand, and, looking in His face, to say, "Lord, I do not speak to him." There is a day coming when we shall all clasp hands and look into each other's eyes, and say, "Well, we did not understand each other, but it is all right at last.'' Why not assume that we may be mistaken, and love even His erring children for His sake?
"Watch ye therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour when the Son of man cometh."
"Let your loins be girded about and your lights burning, and ye yourselves like unto men who watch for their Lord when He will return from the wedding, that when He cometh and knocketh, they may open to Him immediately. Blessed are those servants whom the Lord when He cometh shall find watching. Of a truth I say unto you that He shall gird Himself, and make them sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them. And if He shall come in the second watch or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.
"And this know, that if the good man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken through.
Be ye therefore ready also, for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not."
Here are two ways of receiving the Master. One is to "open to Him immediately." The other is to "leave his house to be broken through." Which will we have? Purposely the time is unknown, that we may be ever ready, but we know enough to know that it is near.
The late Dr. A. J. Gordon once sent word to his family in the country that he was coming to them some day the following week. Every evening his little children, washed, and dressed, went down to the one suburban train that came to the village to meet him. He did not come till Saturday, but his wife told him that the hope of his coming had kept them in garments clean the whole week. So may this blessed hope purify us "even as He is pure."
"Be patient, therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruits of the earth till he receive the early and the latter rain. Be ye also patient, stablish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh."
"Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. Be careful for nothing." He whose hopes are above the world is not greatly tried by its passing clouds. Oh, how easy it will make our little worries, frets and conflicts to truly realize
A few more struggles here,
A few more partings o'er,
A few more toils, a few more tears,
And we shalt weep no more.
"Be ye therefore steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, for as much, as ye know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord." "Cast not away therefore your confidence, which hath great recompense of reward, for yet a little while and He that shall come will come and will not tarry." Hold on, the end is near, the reward is great. Too much has been already suffered to lose the victory now. "Hold fast that thou hast, that no man take thy crown." Standing on yonder battlements He holds the crown in view. You can almost hear the plaudits and the shouts. Shall you falter now?
"Behold I come quickly, and My reward is with Me, even to give every man according as his work shall be." And so to the humble reaper, to the faithful pastor, to the soul winning evangelist the New Testament holds out evermore this great Hope as his inspiration and recompense. How ashamed some of us would feel if we received a crown! We would almost walk through the palaces of glory as if we had stolen it! Not so Paul. He will know the name of every jewel in his diadem. There is Lydia. There is Timothy. There is the jailer. There is Sosthenes, who attacked him at Corinth and was saved in glorious revenge. There is the soldier that was chained to his side. Are you forging your crown and gathering its jewels, or shall you be "ashamed before Him at His coming"?
"I would not have you ignorant concerning them that are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others that have no hope. For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, and with the voice of the archangel and the trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall be caught up together with them in clouds to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we be forever with the Lord. Wherefore comfort one another with these words." This doctrine is the balm of sorrow and the consolation of bereavement. It gives us back our lost in immortal beauty and everlasting love, and it wipes every tear away. "Therefore, be ye steadfast, unmovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, for as much as ye know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord."
There shall be no more crying,
There shall be no more pain,
There shall be no more dying,
There shall be no more stain.
Hearts that by death were riven
Meet in eternal love;
Lives on the altar given
Rise to their crowns above.
Jesus is coming surely,
Jesus is coming soon;
Oh, let us walk so purely,
Oh, let us keep our crown!
* The Coming One, (New York: Christian Alliance Publishing Co., 1912), pp.201-211.
This gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness to all nations: and then shall the end come (Mat. 24:14).
And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him: for the hour of his judgment is come (Rev. 14:6-7).
These two passages present to us the evangelization of the world in the light of the Lord's coming. Surely the double message which the Holy Spirit has been echoing and re-echoing all through these days is, "Behold, I come quickly." "Go ye."
I. The coming of Christ is the great end of creation and redemption. This is the day for which all other days were made, the one event to which all other things are tending.
Even nature itself foreshadows the New Creation. This fallen world with its minor key of sadness echoes in every tone the cry for something better than nature knows. "The whole creation groaneth and travaileth together in pain, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of the body." Every radiant morn, every returning spring, every bursting bud and breathing blossom, and every humming insect emerging from its wintry tomb and opening chrysalis is but the prophecy of the resurrection and the Palingenesis, when He that sitteth upon the throne shall say, "Behold I make all things new."
Man's highest philanthropy aims to develop and improve the conditions of this old earth of ours so that some day it shall fulfill the dreams of that golden age of which poets have sung.
But it were a poor reflection upon God if this old world at its best were the best that His power and goodness have for the human race. When we think of the ravages of sickness, sin and sorrow, when we realize the malign elements of the earthquake, the tempest and the devouring sea, and when we look at the mouldering dust and the hopelessness and agony of death and remember that after all the fairest scenes of the earth are but cemeteries and the spots that tell of broken hearts and blighted hopes, well may we say,
Were this poor world our only rest,
Living or dying, none were blessed.
Or as the Apostle has expressed it, "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable."
No, God's wisdom and love have something better for our race than civilization, reformation, social reform and scientific progress; something better even than a spiritual millennium and the world-wide triumph of the Gospel and the grace of God.
Just as for the individual God's highest thought is not self-improvement, nor reformation, not the best possible result out of natural character and human culture, but a new creation, a regeneration so complete that old things pass away and all things are made new; so for the world itself God's plan is the same. The mark of the cross must pass upon the earth itself and through death and resurrection it must come forth a new earth to take its place with God's new heavens in the coming age. The City of God does not spring up from the earth, but, as the new Jerusalem, it comes down from heaven. Jesus Christ is the "Nobleman who went into a far country to receive for Himself a kingdom" and return. Ages have passed since he went away and He has been from generation to generation gathering the stones for that glorious city which in a little while will burst from the heavens upon an astonished world and take the place of all our puny structures and all our petty plans.
This was the vision of the ancient prophets, this was the promise of the departing Lord, and this is the great perspective that climaxes the vision of faith and hope throughout the whole New Testament.
The first chapter of Acts gives us a magnificent example of this perspective.
First we have the "Passion" or death of our precious Lord which stands in the foreground of the future. Next we have His resurrection in the nearer distance. Then just beyond is the promise of the Holy Ghost and the commission to be witnesses unto the uttermost part of the earth which fills up the Christian age.
Too long the church of God has closed the vision with this scene, and we have been working as though the establishment of the church and the conversion of the world was the real end for which the Spirit was working in this age. But if we look at the inspired record we find there is yet another scene in the picture that lifts our thoughts to a higher plane and a more distant horizon. It begins in the tenth verse, where two men stood by them in white apparel saying, "Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven."
Ah, this was needed to complete the perspective. Away beyond the church, the mission field, the present age, stretches the vista of millennial years with the glorious light of the Lord's return as the real goal toward which redemption is ever moving forward and the Holy Ghost is ever leading on. Until we get this fully in view we have not grasped the whole conception of God's great plan, we have not got our eye upon the true goal and our course will be unsteady and our work unbalanced.
It was for this the Apostolic church was ever watching, praying, working and waiting. This was the message which the Apostle preached to the Thessalonians and which made them "turn from idols to serve the living and true God and to wait for His Son from heaven." This was the comfort He held out to the bereaved and sorrowing saints as they bade farewell to the martyred forms of their beloved ones, that Christ was coming soon and they should be "caught up together with them to meet the Lord in the air." This was the joy and crown of his own intense ministry that he might present his people to the heavenly Bridegroom in the day of His coming as his "crown of rejoicing in the presence of Christ at His coming." And this was his own inspiring hope as he was about to lay down his ministry and meet his Lord, "Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness which the Lord, that righteous judge, will give me in that day."
Thus it was the supreme end which they ever kept in view. And to make it more impressive and emphatic, the Lord Jesus Himself came back to John at Patmos for one last revelation, and gave him the vision of the Apocalypse and the picture of His coming and His kingdom as "things that must shortly come to pass" and left him with this as the burden of the church's latest prayer and the Master's latest promise, "Surely I come quickly. Even so, come, Lord Jesus."
When the apostles were starting out to the great task of the world's evangelization a great council was held in Jerusalem to settle certain principles for the guidance of the church of the present age. And to that council the Holy Ghost revealed through its leader, the Apostle James, as he quoted from the ancient prophet Amos, the divine order of events in the program of the Lord. The first of these steps was stated thus, "At the first God did visit the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name." The second stage was as definitely stated in the next sentence, "After this I will return and build again the tabernacle of David that is fallen down." Here we find the Lord's coming presented as the sequel of their immediate ministry, the great event for which they were gathering out a people from the Gentile nations. If the church had ever kept this in view she would have saved herself the waste of much vain effort and bitter disappointment in her attempts to build up a permanent earthly institution and create on earth a kingdom without the King. For the church itself has been as much at fault in her objects and ambitions as the word in its mere human policy. Men have tried to found their kingdoms and cities as if they should reign forever and make this earth a paradise of pleasure without the Lord. And sin has cursed all their ambitions and policies, and turned the vision of earthly pride and power into that fearful menagerie of wild beasts which Daniel saw when he looked at the governments of the earth as they appeared in the light of heaven. But just as foolish and short-sighted is the policy of the Christian worker who aims to establish even through the church the Gospel and the religion of Jesus Christ an earthy millennium. Earth offers no foundation stable enough for the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. Our business is to gather stones, timbers and jewels for that glorious edifice and pass them on to the great Architect that is building over yonder "The city that hath foundations" and the "kingdom that cannot be moved." We are just like Hiram's carpenters and Solomon's stone cutters, working in the mountains of Lebanon and the quarries of Judah and passing the cedar and the granite to its future site. One by one we are gathering the souls which He is fitting into the living temple and in a little while the vision of its glory will burst upon our view and admiring angels will say, "Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife." And we shall behold "that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God: like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; . . . And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; . . . and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass. And the city had no need of the sun, nor of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. And the nations of them which were saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honor into it."
Beloved, this is God's glorious goal. This is the future toward which the cross of Calvary and the Holy Ghost are leading the generations on. This is the true end for which it is worth our while to work and pray. This is the transcendent outlook of faith and hope and love. This is the kingdom that Daniel saw, superseding the pride and power of Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome, when "the kingdom and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of the saints of the most high, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom and whose dominion shall never pass away." This is the glorious consummation which the voices of heaven celebrate in the eleventh chapter of Revelation when they cry, "The kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, . . . because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned." This is what the Master meant when He said, "When these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and bend yourselves back, for the hour of your redemption draweth nigh." And this is the glorious thought of Peter when he admonishes us to be "looking for and hasting on the coming of the day of God."
That glorious day is to bring our full redemption. It is to give us transfigured bodies and glorified spirits, conformed to His beauty and glory and immortality. It is to restore to our arms the long divided friends of time and wipe away earth's latest tear of sorrow. It is to end earth's story of sickness and sin and death, to sheath the cruel sword of war, to silence the battle drum and to make real over all the earth the Bethlehem song, "Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, good will to men." And that day is to bring our glorious and long rejected Christ, His kingdom and His throne. Best of all, it is to bring us to be with Him and to be like Him as the partners of His throne and the bride of His love. Oh, do not our hearts exalt to think, to know as we see the signs of His appearing in earth and heavens today that it is near and answer back,
Morn of morns, O haste Thy glad appearing,
Day of days, speed on, speed on.
II. The work of missions is the great means of hastening that end. The work of the Holy Ghost through the church was chiefly intended to gather out from all nations a people for His name, a bride for the Lamb. It was not God's purpose at the present time by any stronger compulsion than the persuasion of the Gospel and the influence of the Holy Spirit to bring men to acceptance of Christ as their Saviour and King. In the next age every knee shall bow and every tongue confess that He is Lord, but at the present time the Gospel is preached to men as a witness, the opportunity is given to every one and then it is left to their voluntary choice. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth not shall be damned." The purpose of the present dispensation is to give this universal Probation for a brief time to all the races of mankind, and after the opportunity has been given and all that are willing to come to Him have accepted the gracious invitation to close the day of grace and bring the nations before Him in judgment and then establish a visible kingdom on earth which shall compel the subjection of all mankind and bring earth's millions without exception to bow to His scepter. This is clearly intimated in the passage already quoted in part in connection with the council at Jerusalem. "God at the first did visit the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name," that is the present mission of the church and the object of foreign missions. When this is accomplished the second stage will come, "After this will I return, saith the Lord." Then comes the final stage after His coming, "That the residue of men may seek after the Lord and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called." Then the whole race shall be brought under the Gospel and the reign of Christ and earth's generations for a thousand years in millions and billions shall own His sway and crown Him Lord of all. But today it is the few that He is calling, not the subjects, but the rulers of the coming age. Just as David called out the heroes that followed him in the days of his exile and afterwards made them the princes of his kingdom, so the Lord Jesus today is training the men and women who will share with Him the government of the age to come. This is our high honor and privilege to be kings and priests unto God and to reign with Him upon the earth.
Until the whole number of His elect shall have thus been called and gathered home, He cannot come. This elect company is universal in its scope, while limited in its numbers. It embraces the people of every language, tribe and tongue. Therefore, today the work of missions must be world-wide. It is not enough for us to be zealous in gathering a great number of converts among the favored people in Christian lands; God wants us to bring representatives of every earthly tongue, and when this shall have been done, then, He tells us, the end shall come. The bride of the Lamb, like the Son of man, must represent humanity as a whole. The Lord Jesus is not a Jew, an Anglo-Saxon or a Greek, but He is the Son of Man, the representative of every race, the universal man. So His bride must be the daughter of humanity, the composite photograph, embracing every feature, every color and every kindred of the human family.
III. The practical bearing of all this on the work of missons.
Many persons who do not believe in the literal return of Jesus Christ try to prejudice this truth by saying that its tendency is to paralyze missions and to discredit the Holy Spirit and His work in the present age.
It is not discredit to the Holy Spirit for us to teach that the world will not be converted under His agencies, because Christ never said it would be. The Holy Ghost came simply to carry out Christ's plan and His plan in the present age is to gather out of the world His own people. When He appeared to Paul in Corinth, He did not tell him that all Corinth would be converted, but He said, "I have much people in this place." There will be an age during which "the knowledge of the Lord shall cover the earth, as the waters cover the sea." But that is not the dispensation of the Holy Ghost. Of this age we have been told that "iniquity shall abound and the love of many shall wax cold." Again it is said that "in the last days perilous times shall come," that "evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse" and that "when the Son of man cometh shall he find faith on the earth?" It is, therefore, no dishonor to the Spirit for us to express the very conditions that Christ Himself predicted.
In regard to the other objections, that the Lord's coming paralyzes missionary effort, it would seem to be enough to say that the men and women who are today most prominent, earnest and successful in prosecuting the evangelization of the world, are in the majority of instances ardent believers in the personal and pre-millennial coming of Christ.
Consider some reasons why the hope of Christ's coming should rather encourage and inspire missionary efforts.
1. It gives us a definite and practicable plan of work. It does not send us out in some vague way to sweep in wholesale all earth's multitudes. But it teaches us that God's plan in the present age is "to visit the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name." He is only visiting the Gentiles; they are having their turn as the Jews had, and the day of opportunity is limited. The visit will end in due time.
And He is not doing this with the expectation of gathering them all into His kingdom, but rather of gathering out of them "a people for His name." It is a taking out, rather than a taking in. It is an election and selection, only each one has the casting vote for himself. It is not arbitrary, but voluntary. Knowing this to be God's present plan, our work is very clear and specific. We know that He has some people in every nation whom His Providence and Spirit are preparing to accept the Gospel, and our business is to find them and bring them to Him. We cast our nets into the great sea, but we do not gather all the fish that are in the sea, and when we shall have gathered all who are willing to accept the Gospel message, this commission is ended.
Now this is an extremely encouraging and practicable plan. If we were sent to convert whole nations we might well be discouraged. The Master did not do this; the early Church did not do this; the modern Church has not done this, even in Christian lands, during the past century. We are told that the number of heathen and Mohammedans has increased two hundred millions, so that numerically we are not making any headway in converting the whole world. Our hearts might well sink in despair, if this were our aim.
But if, on the contrary, we are seeking "the other sheep whom He must bring," there is no failure; there is no discouragement. We are gathering first fruits; He Himself will gather the full harvest. We are "sampling" the race. We are seeking and finding the "little flock," the chosen bride, the hidden ones who are to unite from every land and tribe and tongue to sing the millennial chorus that is to welcome the coming King.
2. Not only does this give us a practicable plan, but it also gives us a powerful motive and incentive. We know that our missionary work is not in vain, but, in addition to the blessing it is to bring to the souls we lead to Christ, best of all it is to bring Christ Himself back again. It puts in our hands the key to the bridal chamber and the lever that will hasten His return. What a glorious privilege. What a mighty incentive. Do we long to see Him in His glory and to meet our loved ones once more? Then we shall work with re-doubled energy to spread the Gospel, to tell the story, to evangelize the world and to "prepare the way of the Lord."
3. The hope of the Lord's coming gives us also a message to the heathen. It was Jonah's message of the God that reigned in heaven and earth, and that was coming in judgment to Ninevah, that awakened that wicked city; and it is the message of the coming judge that is most fitted to awaken a careless world. Paul says of the Thessalonian Christians that, "they turned from idols to wait for His Son from Heaven." Paul had told them He was coming and thus aroused them to prepare to meet Him. Our missionaries sometimes tell us how the native chiefs of Africa listen with awe as they proclaim to these savage men that the Great Chief is coming soon to call them to account and to reward them if they are found true to Him.
In the fourteenth chapter of Revelation we have the vision of an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having "the everlasting Gospel" to preach to all the tribes of earth, and we are told his message was, "Fear God and keep His commandments, for the hour of His judgment has come." Does this mean that in the last days the voice of missionaries is to be raised in solemn and authoritative announcement of the immediate coming of the Lord, and that this message is to bring conviction to the heathen and to be followed and vindicated by the glorious coming of the Lord Himself?
O let us then His coming haste!
O let us end this awful waste
Of souls that never die!
A thousand millions still are lost,
A Saviour' blood has paid the cost
O hear their dying cry!
The Master's coming draweth near,
The Son of man will soon appear,
His Kingdom is at hand.
But ere that glorious day can be,
This Gospel of the Kingdom we
Must preach in every land.
** A.B. Simpson, The Challenge of Missions (New York: Christian Publishing Co., 1926), p. 42-56.